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Otomobil Markalarinin Tarihi ve Logolari ve Genel BilgilerP5
#1
20-2014icon 
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Otomobil Markalarinin Tarihi ve Logolari ve Genel BilgilerP5

Araba markaları hakkında detaylı bilgilere, araba marka tarihleri ve kuruluş hikayelerine, buradan ulaşabilirsiniz. İster ikinci el araba arayın, ister sıfır kilometre bir araba modeli satın almayı düşünüyor olun, otomobil almaya karar vermeden önce iyice araştırmanın yanında otomobil markası hakkında da biraz bilgi edinmek isteyebilirsiniz. Aşağıdaki listeden dilediğiniz otomobil markası logoları Altındao otomaobil markası hakkında detaylı bilgileri bulacaksınız.


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Morgan-Auto

Die Morgan Motor Company ist ein britischer Autohersteller für Sportwagen in privater Hand. Das Unternehmen ist weltweit das einzige, das bei Automobilen noch Aufbauten mit Rahmen aus Eschenholz einsetzt, eine Fertigungstechnik, die noch aus dem Kutschwagenbau stammt. Der Morgan 4/4 hält den Rekord als das am längsten durchgehend produzierte Automodell. Die sehr leichten und teils sehr starken Fahrzeuge von Morgan haben in einer großen Fangemeinde Kultstatus. Pro Jahr werden rund 1000 Fahrzeuge gebaut; Deutschland ist zweitgrößter Markt von Morgan; der Umsatz liegt bei insgesamt etwa 48 Millionen Euro

Geschichte

Das Unternehmen wurde 1909 von Harry Frederick Stanley Morgan (* 1881 in Stoke Lacy Rectory, Hereford, † 1959) in Malvern Link, einem Stadtteil von Malvern in der Grafschaft Worcestershire, West Midlands, gegründet. Nach dem Tod des Gründers 1959 übernahm sein Sohn Peter die Geschäftsführung. Peter Morgan starb am 20. Oktober 2003. Sein Sohn Charles leitet seit 1999 die Geschicke des Unternehmens.

2009 hat die Morgan Motor Company ihr 100-jähriges Jubiläum mit zahlreichen Veranstaltungen in Malvern Link und Cheltenham zwischen dem 24. Juli und dem 2. August begangen.[2] Insgesamt wurden 75.000 Fahrzeuge gebaut.[1] Heute gibt es ein Werksmuseum[3] und jährlich rund 25.000 Besucher.[1]
Threewheeler

Zunächst wurden dreirädrige Fahrzeuge gebaut, mit Motor und zwei gelenkten Rädern vorne und einem angetriebenen Hinterrad. Das Gewicht des ersten Threewheelers war mit 178 kg angegeben.[4] Im Laufe der Jahre wurden eine große Zahl von Varianten gebaut: „Einfache“ Zweisitzer, auch Viersitzer und Lieferwagen mit Kastenaufbau. Bis 1934 gab es ausschließlich luft- oder wassergekühlte Zweizylinder-Einbaumotoren verschiedener Hersteller. Bekannt sind die JAP-Motoren, aber auch Motoren von Matchless und Anzani. Oft waren die Motoren frei im Fahrtwind stehend vor der Vorderachse eingebaut, andere hatten eine Motorhaube oder den Motor hinter dem Kühler.

Es gab auch Sport- und Rennversionen. So erreichte bereits 1928 ein Threewheeler auf der Brooklands-Rennstrecke eine Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 180 km/h. Ab 1934 kam die F-Baureihe mit anderer Karosserieform hinzu, die auch als Zweisitzer, Viersitzer und in einer Sportversion produziert wurde. „F“ steht für den verwendeten Ford-Motor, ein Vierzylinder-Reihenmotor. 1952 wurde die Produktion der Morgan-Threewheeler beendet.

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Nissan

Nissan Hakkında

Nissan, 26 Aralık 1933 tarihinde Japonya’nın Yokohoma kentinde kuruldu. Adı 1934 yılında Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. olarak değiştirilen şirket, şu anda müşteri mutluluğu ve memnuniyetini ön planda tutan ve tüm ihtiyaçlara cevap vermeyi amaçlayan bir hizmet anlayışı ile dünyanın 5 kıtasında üretim yapıyor.

Kuzey Amerika, Avrupa, Japonya ve Denizaşırı Ülkeler olmak üzere 4 ana bölgede yapılanmış olan Nissan, Avrupa’ya araç ihracına 1962 yılında başladı. 1983’te Terrano II, Vanette Cargo ve günümüzde Navara üretiminin gerçekleştiği Nissan Motor İberica, İspanya’da üretime geçti. 1984 yılında, Nissan’ın bir diğer fabrikası, Nissan Motor Manufacturing İngiltere kuruldu. Bu fabrika aynı zamanda, geniş bir kullanıcı kitlesine hitap eden Primera ve Micra modellerinin de üretildiği yerdi. 1993’te, şirket Avrupa’daki varlığının 60. yılını kutlarken, İngiltere’de üretilen Micra yılın en iyi otomobili ödülünü aldı. Micra, 1995’te Avustralya’ya ihraç edilmeye başlandı. 1996 yılına gelindiğinde, Nissan’ın yurtdışı üretim merkezlerindeki toplam üretimi 10 milyonu geçmişti. Micra, Note ve Primera modellerinin üretiminin gerçekleştiği İngiltere’deki Sunderland fabrikası, üretim verimliliği bakımından geçtiğimiz yıllarda sayısız ödül alarak “Avrupa’nın en verimli fabrikası” seçilmiştir. Sunderland Nissan’ın yeni Crossover ürünü Qashqai’nin de üretim merkezidir. Qashqai 2007 Şubat ayında tüm Avrupa’da satışa sunulacaktır. Qashqai, 2003 yılında Londra’da açılan Nissan Dizayn Merkezi’nin bir ürünüdür.

Japonya’nın en önemli otomotiv şirketlerinden biri olan Nissan, yıllık 3.4 milyon* araç üretimiyle aynı zamanda dünyanın sayılı otomobil üreticilerinden biri sayılıyor. Nissan, günümüzde yeni motor teknolojilerinin tasarlanması, çevre dostu araç üretimi ve güvenlik konularındaki üstünlüğüyle, 2000’li yılların güçlü üreticisi olma yolunda büyük adımlar atıyor. Piyasaya sürdüğü yeni araçlarıyla farklı zevk ve anlayışa hitap eden Nissan, artık tüm enerjisini estetik ve teknolojiyi otomobilin yeni çağına taşımak için çalışıyor.

Geçtiğimiz yıllarda marka imajı konusunda ciddi bir değişim içine giren Nissan, yeni kimliğini “Beklentilerinizi değiştirin” sloganıyla yansıttı. Bu slogan Nissan’ın yeni duruşunu ve tüketicisine vermek istediği mesajları müjdeliyordu. Buna göre “değiştirmek/ Shift_” kelimesi hem Nissan’ı hem de potansiyel kullanıcıları hedefliyordu. Nissan için yenilikçi, cesur ve atak bir devrin başladığını, müşteriler için de bugüne kadar insanların zihinlerine yerleşmiş geleneksel otomobil anlayışından sıyrılarak gerçekten beklentileri karşılayacak otomobiller istemenin zamanının geldiğini anlatıyordu.

Bu nedenle Nissan, tüketicilerin ihtiyaçlarını karşılamanın ötesine geçerek, beklentiler üzerinde çalışmaya başladı. Tasarım konusunda cesur ve fikir dolu bir anlayış tercih edildi. Buna göre Nissan’ın tasarımları, alışılagelmiş otomobil anlayışının çok daha dışına çıkan ve tüketiciyle bire bir ilişki kurabilen araçlar yaratmaya yönelmişti. Burada ulaşılmak istenen nokta, sürücüye “Benim otomobilim” dedirtecek tasarımlar yaratmak ve bu alanda kendi standartlarını belirlemekti. Modellere yansıyan bu tasarım felsefesi elbette ki kendine has hayran kitleleri oluşturdu. Nissan’ın farklı müşteri profillerine seslenen Primera, X-Trail, Micra, Note, Qashqai gibi araçları; yeni, cesur ve akıl dolu tasarımlarıyla ne istediğini bilen tüketiciler tarafından çok geçmeden hak ettikleri ilgiyi gördüler.
Nissan global anlamda büyümesini 2000’li yıllarda hızla sürdürmektedir.

2003 yılında Amerika Mississippi’de yeni bir fabrika, yine Rusya’da yeni bir satış firmasının açılışı, 2004 yılında Tayland’da yatırımların genişletilmesi, 2005 yılında Pakistan pazarına girilmesi, Ukrayna’da yeni bir satış firmasının kurulması, Çin’de üretim aşamasına geçilmesi, Nissan için önemli adımlardır.
Nissan – Renault güçbirliği

Nissan global anlamda rekabetçi kalabilmek ve ürünlerinin tüm dünyaya daha etkin bir biçimde yayılmasını sağlamak amacıyla 27 Mart 1999 tarihinde Renault ile bir güçbirliği anlaşması imzaladı. Stratejik ve global alanda şimdiye kadar örneği görülmemiş bu anlaşmayla her iki firmanın toplam üretimi yıllık 6 milyona yaklaşırken; ikili, dünyanın en büyük otomotiv üreticilerinden biri haline geldi.

Türkiye`de Nissan

Türkiye, Nissan Otomotiv A.Ş. ile 1993 yılının Aralık ayında tanıştı. Şirket, 150 milyar dolarlık cirosu ve 400 yıllık tarihiyle Japonya’nın en büyük kuruluşlarından Sumitomo ve Çukurova Grubu’nun ortaklığı sonucunda kuruldu. Türkiye pazarına 14 yıldır üstün otomobiller sunan bu büyük ortaklıkta, Sumitomo Grubu’nun %99.30, Çukurova Grubu’nun ise % 0.70 oranında payı bulunuyor.

Nissan, Türkiye pazarında rakiplerinden, global üstünlüğü ve deneyimiyle ayrılıyor. Kuzey Amerika, İspanya ve İngiltere’deki araştırma ve geliştirme merkezlerinde otomobiller için ileri teknolojiler yaratan şirket, Türk tüketicilerine daha üstün araçlar sunma konusunda da bu çalışmalardan faydalanıyor.Türkiye’de 31 Bayisi ile hizmet veren NISSAN OTOMOTİV A.Ş, her geçen gün gelişen dinamik ve modern organizasyonuyla Türk otomotiv endüstrisine değer katmaktadır.

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Noble Automotive

Noble Automotive Ltd., more commonly known simply as Noble, is a British sports car manufacturer based in Leicester. Noble Automotive Ltd. was established in 1999 by Lee Noble in Leeds, West Yorkshire, for producing high-speed sports cars with a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Lee Noble was the chief designer and owner of Noble. He sold the company in August 2006. He resigned from the company in February 2008 and announced his new venture, Fenix Automotive in 2009.[1] The company has since moved to larger premises at Meridian Business Park near Leicester.[2]

Noble is a low-production British sports car company, its past products include the M12 GTO, M12 GTO-3, M12 GTO-3R and Noble M400. The M12 GTO-3R and M400 share chassis and body, but have minor differences in engines and suspensions. The M15 has a new space frame chassis. The body and chassis of the Noble is built by Hi-Tech Automotive in Port Elizabeth, South Africa alongside Superformance cars. Once the body shell is completed, it is sent to the Noble factory where the engines, transmissions, etc. are added.

In 2009 Noble released the M600, a car which takes Noble into Hyper Car territory. With 650 bhp (485 kW) available from its purpose built 4.4-litre V8 Yamaha twin turbocharged engine, the carbon fibre, light weight bodied car is aimed firmly at the established Ferrari/Porsche brands. Deliveries to customers are expected mid-2010. The retail price is GBP 200,000.

Only 220 Noble GTO-3Rs and M400s were exported to the US. They are the only Nobles available to the American market. The US distribution rights to the M12s and M400s were sold in February 2007 to 1G Racing from Ohio. Due to high demand of these cars, 1G released its own copy, named Rossion Q1.

Noble M400
Main article: Noble M400
Noble M400

The M400 is the track variant of the M12. Its power-to-weight ratio is over 400 bhp (300 kW) per ton, and is the figure from which its model name derives. It has 425 bhp (317 kW; 431 PS) and has been reported to do 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in as little as 2.97 seconds. Car and Driver (March 2007) achieved a 0–60 mph time of 3.3 seconds and a 0–100 mph time of 7.52 seconds. Although often listed as 0-60 mph in 3.5 seconds, the M400 generally comes in at 3.2 seconds according to various publications and generally listed amongst the fastest accelerative cars. Noble indicates only that the car is capable of achieving 0–60 mph in under 4 seconds. Its top speed is listed as 185 mph (300 km/h). A top speed of 202 mph (325 km/h) has been achieved by Noble's former press officer. Lateral Gs are reported in excess of 1.2. It has both a 3-point seatbelt and a 5-point harness.

The most notable differences from the M12 are the use of forged pistons, T28 turbos, a front anti-roll bar, stiffer springs, different shocks, Pirelli P Zero tyres, a smoother gear shifter, and a slightly narrower central tunnel as the driver now sits a bit more central than previous models. Exterior differences remain subtle. The colour scheme tends to incorporate anthracite (Gris) wheels, rear wing supports and wing ends but some examples maintain silver wheels and supports. The front splitter is now removed (Although many owners opt to have this put on). The main change is the addition of side pods to enhance air into the system and to create a visual impact. Air conditioning is now an £1,995 option and adds to the weight. The interior has an added oil gauge that resides next to the boost one. Additionally the sparco alcantara seats and finishings differ to the other Noble's (Alcantara is one third the weight of leather). The Noble M400 won the car of the year award in 2005 for one publication. The M400 is designed to be an outstanding track car that is also pleasant to drive on the road. With just 75 examples made (UK/Europe) this version is sought after and rare.
Noble M14
Main article: Noble M14
Noble M14

The Noble M14 debuted at the 2004 British Motor Show and generated significant interest in the motoring press. It was planned to compete with the Porsche 911 Turbo and Ferrari F430. It was based on the chassis of the M12, with only minor modifications. It had a new body and a more up market interior. Following the debut of the car Lee Noble decided that the car was insufficiently different from the M12/M400 to justify the price increase despite having taken a number of deposits. Noble instead developed a brand new car, the M15, developing further from the M12 and M14, although the cars have few common components.
Noble M15
Main article: Noble M15
Noble M15

Production of the M15 was planned to begin in early 2006, but has not taken place. The Noble M15 was intended to appeal to a far broader market and compete directly with the Porsche 911 Turbo and Ferrari F430. As a result, the Noble M15 was expected to have a number of features not previously found on Nobles such as satnav, traction control, electric windows and ABS. The company issued a press release about the M15, stating that the M15 will be produced after the introduction of the M600. The M15 of the future will be different than the car shown in 2006.

Despite increased comfort and usability compared to previous Noble cars press releases stated that Noble expected the M15 to be significantly quicker than the M400 around a race track. It is able to accelerate from 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of 185 mph (298 km/h).[4]

The car was based on a brand new platform with a longitudinally mounted engine connected to a bespoke gearbox created by Graziano. The double wishbone suspension is a development of the system mounted on the M400. Mounting the engine longitudinally allowed the designer to increase cooling flow to the engine which allows the 3.0L twin turbo V6 to produce 455 bhp (339 kW; 461 PS). The engine was designed to meet emissions regulations and the new steel/aluminium space frame was designed with a view to passing crash test regulations around the world. The M15 was planned to be the first Noble to gain European and US Type Approval.

According to founder Lee Noble, "I wanted to produce a supercar people could use every day. It was time for Noble to take a big step up in terms of refinement, practicality and style."[5]

The M15 appeared in Top Gear and presenter Richard Hammond was very impressed. It was a lot quicker around the Top Gear track than the old Noble. According to Richard this has to do with the new, stronger gearbox which enables Noble to allow more boost and let the same engine produce more power. The Stig managed a lap time of 1:22.5 which is currently 50th on the power lap board.
Noble M600
Noble M600
Main article: Noble M600

In 2010, Noble began sales production of the M600.[6] It has a Volvo twin-turbocharged V8 engine (producing 650 bhp, 485 kW, 659 PS), a carbon fibre body shell, and a 6-speed gear box, made by Yamaha. It competes in the same category as the Ferrari F430. The 2,800-pound (1,300 kg) M600 can accelerate from 0–62.1 mph (100 km/h) in 3.5 seconds and requires only another 4 seconds to achieve 100 mph (160 km/h). It has over 1G of grip on the skid pad. The brake discs in the Noble M600 are steel. The Noble comes with no ABS or ASM and TC as those features will be optional, making the Noble M600 a pure driver's car. The British supercar will cost around £300,000 when it is launched, and only 50 will be made annually.

Noble publicly tested an M600 prototype 2 in the USA, comparing its performance with a Porsche Carrera GT and Ferrari Enzo.[7] This prototype was detuned to 500 bhp (373 kW; 507 PS).

The Noble was also featured on the fifth episode of the 14th series of Top Gear, in which Jeremy Clarkson complained of its lack of features but was astonished by its power and acceleration. The Noble posted a time of 1:17.7 around the Top Gear test track with The Stig behind the wheel on a cold winter day, and despite the conditions the M600 was the eighth-fastest behind the Ariel Atom 500, the McLaren MP4-12C, the Lamborghini Aventador, the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport, the Gumpert Apollo, the Ascari A10 and the Koenigsegg CCX. It beat the Bugatti EB 16.4 Veyron and the Pagani Zonda Roadster F in lap times around the Top Gear test track.

The M600 was featured again in Top Gear in a challenge to drive from Lecce, Italy to Rome. The M600 was driven by Richard Hammond while Jeremy Clarkson drove the Lamborghini Aventador and James May drove the McLaren MP4-12C. Along the way, the trio stopped at the Nardò Ring to test the driver's willingness to push their respective vehicles to their limits while in a perpetual corner. Following the track test, they continued on their way to Rome when Hammond experienced clutch trouble in the Noble and had to have the car towed to a garage to replace the clutch and disassemble and rebuild the gearbox. Hammond eventually rejoined his co-presenters and continued on with the rest of the challenge, albeit in a noticeably different M600 provided by Noble, the vehicle was right-hand drive and painted black whereas the vehicle Hammond began the challenge with was a left-hand drive car painted red like the Aventador and the MP4-12C.

In 2012, the M600 was reviewed in Top Gear (U.S. TV series), in the last episode of the 2nd season, there Tanner Foust travels to England to test the new Noble M600. They introduce the segment saying: "Noble has not yet determined the top speed of the M600 and Tanner is tasked with determining the top speed of the vehicle". He races a Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera and an Audi R8 in half-mile drag race. The M600 comes in first, beating the Superleggera in second and the R8 in third. Tanner then takes the M600 to an American Air Force base to determine the maximum top speed. Tanner drove the M600 to 215 mph (346 km/h). Tanner gives a generally favorable review of the M600. He praises the car for its large power to weight ratio and calls it "...one of the purest driving experiences around," due to its lack of driver aids. At the conclusion of his review, Tanner states, "The M600 has proven itself to be a member of the supercar elite."

In the motoring show Fifth Gear (Series 17), Jason Plato drove the car up to 330 km/h (205 mph).

On a video test of the YouTube channel DRIVE, Chris Harris (in which he also drove the Ariel Atom) drove it to over 205 mph (almost 330 km/h) on the Nordschleife section of the Nürburgring circuit.

According to UK enthusiast website ATFULLCHAT the management at Noble Automotive have not ignored the possibility of building an M600 roadster. On 21 June 2012 the website published a rendering of an M600 drophead[8] that was commissioned internally by Noble Automotive, although company MD Peter Boutwood is quoted as stating there are no plans at present to produce such a machine.

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Opel

Opel Hakkında

ADAM OPEL adıyla anılan bu marka,1862 yıllarında ilk zirai makinaları,dikiş makinası ve bisiklet olarak küçük bir atölyede başlamıştır serüvene.1899 yılarında ADAM ın oğulları olan OPEL kardeşler babalarından devraldıkları bu küçük imalathaneyi kısa zamanda dünya markası olmayolunda ki ilk adımları atarak 1899 yılında Almanyanın RÜSELSHAİM da ilk otomobil fabrikasını Latzman la ortak olarak kurmuşlar ancak bu ortaklık sadece 2 yıl sürebilmişti.

Bu hızlı ve güvenilir gidişatın 1906 yıllarında ki üretimi 100.000 otomobil üretimi olmuştur.Bu müteşebbis ruhlu kardeşler 1909 yıllarında özellikle Doktorların ilgisini çeken,ozamanki bozuk taşra yollarında sağlamlığıyla halkında ilgisini çekmeye başlamıştır. 1914 yıllarında avrupada başlayan 1. dünya savaşı tümdünyaya da sıçramış diğer otomotiv firmaları gibi opel de savaş sanayinin etkisi altında kalarak üretime ara verip savaş sanayinde tank paleti üretimi ve diğer savaş yan sanayi üretimine başlamıştır.

Gücünü asla kaybetmeyen opel,kısa sürede toparlanmış,doğru stratejilerle otomotiv üretimine yeniden başlanmıştır.1929 yılına gelindiğinde opel ilk özel sigorta şirketleri ve finans kurumlarıyla taksitli otomobil satışınında öncüsü olmuştur. Ancak savaşın etkisiyle birtürlü toparlanamayan ekonomi otomotiv sektöründe yeni arayışlara ve ortaklıklara yönelmiştir.

Böylesi güçlü yapıdaki dev otomobil firmasının da ilk resmi ortağı GENERAL MOTOR olup 1929 yılında almanyadaki tesislerine ortak olmuş,ancak yapılan anlamşöa gereği OPEL in ismi muhafaza edilmiştir.1930 yıllarında ilk çelik entegreli kaporta ve şasiye önem veren opel yine bu süre içinde OPEL OLİMPİYA modelini üreterek başarılarına bir yenisini daha ilave etmiştir.1962 yıllarında rüselshaim deki modernize edilmiş yeni tesislerinde OPEL KADETT üretimini yapan opel CUPE ve GT serisini dahada modernize edip dünya otomotiv sektöründe adını iyice bahsettirmiştir.

1970 yılında yüksek performaz az yakıt tüketimi atrodinamik yapısıyla OPEL REKORD E modelini piyasaya sürerek kendisinden beklenen başarılara bir yenisini daha eklemiştir.Başarı,emek,güç ve güvenirliğin birleşimi olan opel mağrur ama geniş hatlara ve konfora sahip SENATÖR modeliyle şaşkın bakışların altında dudak ısırtmaya başlamıştır bir kere…1980 li yıllar opelin bu günki klasmanınıda belirlemeye başlamış yapılan teknolojik tasarımlarda üretime geçerek 1989 yılında sırasıylakatalitik konventörü,ardından eco-tech enjeksiyonlu ve turbo şarj lı corsa modeli konseptinde opelin İLK leri olarak karşımıza çıkmıştır.90lı yıllar yeni model ve tasarımlarına ASTRA, VECTRA, OMEGA VE FRONTERA ile giren opel 2000 li yılların başından itibaren göz kamaştırmaya devam etmektedir. 2008 yılının muhteşem tasarımı olan İNSİGNİYA daha şimdiden tasarımcıları hayrete bırakarak dünya otomotiv devlerinin arasında başı çekmektedir.Opelin amblemi tekerlek içinde şimşek,yani tekerlek güveni şimşek ise hızı simgelemektedir.

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Pagani

Pagani Automobili S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of sports cars and carbon fibre components. The company was founded in 1992 by Horacio Pagani and is based in San Cesario sul Panaro, near Modena, Italy.

History

Horacio Pagani, who formerly managed Lamborghini's composites department, founded Pagani Composite Research in 1988. This new company worked with Lamborghini on numerous projects, including the restyling of the 25th Anniversary Countach, the Lamborghini LM002, the Lamborghini P140 design concept, and the Diablo. In the late 1980s, Pagani began designing his own car, then referred to as the "C8 Project". Pagani planned to rename the C8 the "Fangio F1" to honour his friend, the five-time Argentinian Formula One champion Juan Manuel Fangio.

In 1991, Pagani established Modena Design to meet the increasing demand for his design, engineering, and prototyping services. In 1992, he began construction of a Fangio F1 prototype, and by 1993, the car was being tested at the Dallara wind tunnel with positive results. In 1994, Mercedes-Benz agreed to supply Pagani with V12 engines. The cost of these cars are at a total of 2.3 million dollars.

The final car was named the Zonda C12, the first of the Zonda line (the Fangio F1 name was dropped out of respect for Fangio, who died in 1995). It was first presented at the 1999 Geneva Motor Show.

In 2005, Pagani announced that it planned to triple its production output within the next three years, and to enter the US market in 2007.

On 30 June 2010, Pagani claimed a new record for production-based cars using the Pagani Zonda R and completing the Nürburgring in 6:47, beating the Ferrari 599XX.[2]
Relationship with Daimler

While it is an independent company, Pagani has a working relationship with Daimler AG, most notably with its Mercedes-AMG subsidiary. This is partly due to the fact that Fangio had suggested that Pagani approach Mercedes. The Zonda used increasingly advanced versions of the Mercedes-Benz M120 V12 engine; the initial version displaced 6.0L, but later Zondas used the 7.3L M297 V12 engine, later reverting to a race-tuned version of the original 6.0L version for the track exclusive Zonda R and its two other variants (Zonda R Evolución and Zonda Revolución). Moreover, Pagani also worked with Daimler in the development of the Chrysler supercar, the 2004 ME 412, when Chrysler was under the Daimler-Chrysler umbrella. Finally, the Mercedes-Benz M158 engine for the Pagani Huayra is a bespoke engine produced just for Pagani. Mercedes-Benz revised its M275 engine in order to reduce turbo lag and improve response. This resulted in new exhaust headers, new pistons, a new intake manifold, as well as new turbochargers.
Pagani Zonda
Main article: Pagani Zonda

Pagani's first model, the Zonda, is powered by a mid-mounted DOHC V12 engine manufactured by Mercedes-Benz's AMG division. The car's design was inspired by jet fighters and the famous Sauber-Mercedes Silver Arrow Group C cars, and features several unique design elements, including its circular four pipe exhaust system.
Pagani Zonda Revolución at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show.

The Zonda's production run ended with the Zonda HP Barchetta. Only three were produced with one unit retained for Horacio Pagani's personal collection and the other two costing US$15M.[3]

Zonda Zonda Cinque

Pagani announced a variant of the Zonda named "Zonda Cinque" which was introduced as a 2009 model. The Cinque is based on the track-only Zonda R, but features a new 678 hp (687 PS; 506 kW) Mercedes-Benz M297 V12 engine, active aerodynamics, and features exterior elements from the newly developed material "carbon-titanium fibre", which is stronger and lighter than typical carbon fibre. Only five were produced, all of which were already spoken for.[4]

Pagani announced the Zonda Cinque Roadster in July 2009, of which only five were produced. The roadster uses the same Mercedes-Benz M297 V12 engine as the coupé version, but has been made lighter and stronger to keep the car structurally rigid. Both the coupe and the roadster accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 3.4 seconds, 0–124 mph (200 km/h) in 9.6 seconds and have a top speed of 217 mph (349 km/h). The Cinque uses carbon-ceramic brakes from Brembo. They help decelerate the car from 62 mph (100 km/h)–0 mph in 2.1 seconds and 124 mph (200 km/h)–0mph in 4.3 seconds. The maximum side acceleration is 1.45g with road tyres. The car produces 750 kg (1,653 lb) of downforce at 186 mph (300 km/h). [5]
Zonda Tricolore
At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Pagani announced the exclusive Zonda Tricolore, built to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Frecce Tricolori, the Italian Air Force's aerobatic squadron.[6] Originally intended to be limited to a single car, eventually three were produced. The Tricolore is based on a top specification Zonda Cinque, built on a carbon titanium chassis with sequential transmission and titanium exhausts. The mid-mounted 7.3L M297 Mercedes AMG V12 engine produces 670 hp (679 PS; 500 kW), which helps the car achieve a top speed of 217 mph (349 km/h) and a 0–60 mph (97 km/h) acceleration time of 3.2 seconds.

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Peugeot

Peugeot Hakkında

Peugeot’nun sanayi macerası dönüştürülmüş bir un fabrikasında düzenlenmiş bir çelik dökümhanesinde doğmuştur. Burası 1818’te patent alınan çok daha karlı bir faaliyet olan soğuk haddeleme için terkedilmiştir. Soğuk haddeleme faaliyeti mamul maddeler, testereler ve saat mekanizmaları üretimine yol açmıştır. İhraç edilmeye başlanan ürünlerin kalitesi sayesinde başarı ve zenginliğin gelmesi gecikmemiştir. Bu kalite aslan ambleminde sembolize edilmiştir.

Peugeot daha sonra bir çok yönde çeşitlenmiştir. Üretim yüzyılın bütün el işlerini temsil eden muazzam sayıda alet ve ürünleri kapsamıştır. 1840’ta, şirket ilk kahve değirmeni ile atölyeden mutfağa girmiştir. Bu 1930’ların başında elektriğe geçilerek 1975’e kadar yapılmıştır. Ünlü kahve değirmeni profesyonellerde, bakkal dükkânlarında ve kafelerde de görülmüştür. Daha sonra bir biber değirmeni ortaya çıkmıştır. Patentli öğütme sistemi ile, aşınması pratik olarak imkansız olup, bugün hala üretilmektedir ve dünyanın dört yanında milyonlarca satılmıştır.

Aslan kadınların dünyasına da kabarık etekler ve korse destekleri, ve 1867’de 1936’ya kadar üretilen dikiş makineleri sağlamıştır.Prusya ordularının kırımından kurtulan Montbéliard alanı refaha ulaşmıştır. Rekabete “Grand Bi”, üç tekerlekli bisikletler ve bisikletler de katılmıştır. Daha sonra, ütüler, 1920’den sonra çamaşır makineleri, telsiz telgrafın icadıyla radyo takımları ve 1960larda ilk gıda işlemcisi, Peugimix, ve bir çok ürün dâhil, elektrikli ev aletleri ortaya çıkmıştır.

19. yüzyılın ortasında Valentigney ve Beaulieu’da daha sonra otomobil üretecek olan yeni fabrikalar açıldı. Bir otomobil öncüsü olan Armand Peugeot otomobilin geleceğinin benzinli motorda olduğunu biliyordu. Serpollet ile birlikte kısa bir buharlı üç tekerlekli bisiklet imalatından sonra, Daimler motorundan yararlanmak istemiş, ve Gottlieb Daimler ve (Fransa’da Daimler’in imalat lisansına sahip olan) Panhard et Levassor şirketi ile bir anlaşma yapmıştır. 1891’den itibaren benzinle çalışan ilk seri Peugeot Type 3 dört tekerlekliler üretilmeye başlanmıştır.

Başarı hızla gelmiştir. Ama bundan önce, Armand Peugeot otomobil işini motorlu arabaya karşı çıkan kuzeni Eugène’in diğer imalat bölümlerinden ayırmak durumunda kalmıştır. 1896’da Société des Automobiles Peugeot adlı şirketi kurmuş ve otomobillerini imal etmek için Audincourt’ta yeni bir fabrika inşa ettirmiştir. Ayrılmanın kayıt ve şartları içinde Eugène’in şirketi “Fils de Peugeot Frères” (Peugeot Kardeşlerin Oğulları)’nın otomobil imal etmesi yasaklanmış, “Société des Automobiles Peugeot”nun da aletler, iki tekerlekli araçlar, üç tekerlekliler ve seleli dört tekerlekliler imal etmesi yasaklanmıştır.

Mamafih, 1905’te, Eugène’nin oğulları Lion-Peugeot olarak bilinen popüler modeller üreten ilk otomobil markalarını lense etmişlerdir. 1910’da iki markanın birleşmesiyle düzen tekrar sağlanmıştır. İlk iş aracı, Type 13, 1895’de ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Peugeot tarafından tasarlanan ve imal edilen ilk motor bir sonraki yıl ortaya çıkmıştır. Franche-Comté dışında yer alan ilk fabrika 1897’de Fives-Lille’de açılmıştır.

Birleşmeden sonra, Audincourt, Lille, Beaulieu ve Valentigney’deki dört fabrikaları ile grup önemli bir sanayi gücüne sahip olmuştur. Birinci Dünya Savaşından önce, Peugeot Fransa üretiminin yarısını oluşturan 10,000 otomobil yapmıştır.Bununla birlikte, şirket savaştan sonra bazı mali güçlükler yaşamıştır. Borç içinde, borçlanmak zorunda bırakılmış ve 1926’da en karlı iş olan bisiklet yasal olarak otomobilden bağımsız hale gelmiştir. Automobiles Peugeot ve Cycles Peugeot olarak iki şirket oluşturulmuştur.

1925’de, 100,000inci Peugeot fabrikadan çıkmıştır. 1929’da üretim vasıtaları 1912’de açılan Sochaux tesisinde yoğunlaştırılmıştır. 201’in başarısı şirketin 1930 bunalımından nispeten yaralanmadan çıkmasını sağlamıştır.İkinci Dünya Savaşından sonra, 203 ile tek model politikası uygulanmıştır. Bu 204’ün lanse edilmesiyle 1965’te sona ermiştir. Aynı yıl bütün grup şirketlerini kontrol eden holding şirketi Peugeot SA tesis edilmiştir. Dört yıl önce markanın ikinci üretim sitesi olması planlanan Mulhouse’daki fabrikanın inşaatına başlanmıştı.

1970’lerin başlaması ile, Peugeot ikinci büyük Fransız imalatçısı olarak 500,000 otomobil üretmiştir. 1966’da Renault ile bir anlaşma imzalanmıştır. Bu anlaşmanın ilk meyvelerinden biri Volvo’nun katılması ile 1971’de daha sonra V6 PRV olan motorun yapımı olmuştur. Bu ortaklıkta Renault ile ortak olarak Douvrin’de bir fabrika açılmasını başkaları da takip etmiştir: iş araçları ve yolcu taşıyıcıların üretimi için 1981’de Fiat ile, sonra dizel motorların geliştirilmesi için 1998’de Ford ile, küçük motorlu modeller için 2001’de Toyota ile ve bir sonraki yıl benzinli motorlar için BMW ile.

1976’da Citroën’in kontrolünün ele geçirilmesi PSA Peugeot-Citroën’in tesis edilmesine yol açmıştır. Büyüme açlığının giderek sürmesi ile iki yıl sonra aslan Chrysler’in üç Avrupa iştirakini satın almıştır. Aynı anda PSA İngiltere’de Poissy, Ryton ve İspanya’da Villaverde endüstri tesislerini elde etmiştir. Ancak bu kadar kısa süredeki bu edinimler bir miktar hazımsızlık yaratmıştır. Talbot markasını Chrysler’in eski iştirakleri ile birleştirerek canlandırma girişimi başarısızlıkla sonuçlanmıştır.

Peugeot’nun uluslararası büyümesi küreselleşme bağlamında hayati bir zorunluluk olarak 1985’te Çin’e gitmesi ile işaretlenirken, Porto Real, Brezilya fabrikasının 2001’deki açılışı ve bunu Arjantin’de bir tesisin açılışının takip etmesi aslanın Güney Ortak Pazarındaki varlığını güçlendirmiştir.

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Pontiac

Pontiac was a car brand that was owned, made, and sold by General Motors. Introduced as a companion make for GM's more expensive line of Oakland automobiles,[1] Pontiac overtook Oakland in popularity and supplanted its parent brand entirely by 1933.

Sold in the United States, Canada, and Mexico by GM, Pontiac was advertised as the performance division of General Motors from the 1960s onward.[2]

Amid late 2000s financial problems and restructuring efforts, GM announced in 2008 it would follow the same path with Pontiac as it had with Oldsmobile in 2004 and discontinued manufacturing and marketing vehicles under that brand by the end of 2010. The last Pontiac badged cars were built in December 2009, with one final vehicle in January, 2010. Franchise agreements for Pontiac dealers expired October 31, 2010,[3] leaving GM to focus on its four remaining North American brands: Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac, and GMC.

History
1926–1942
1928 Pontiac
1936 Pontiac Master Six Coupe

The Pontiac brand was introduced by General Motors in 1926 as the companion marque to GM's Oakland division, and shared the GM A platform. Purchased by General Motors in 1909, Oakland continued to produce modestly priced automobiles until 1931 when it was renamed Pontiac. It was named after the famous Ottawa chief who had also given his name to the city of Pontiac, Michigan where the car was produced.[4] Within months of its introduction, Pontiac was outselling Oakland, which was essentially a 1920s Chevrolet with a six-cylinder engine installed.[5] Body styles offered included a sedan with both two and four doors, Landau Coupe, with the Sport Phaeton, Sport Landau Sedan, Sport Cabriolet and Sport Roadster. As a result of Pontiac's rising sales, versus Oakland's declining sales, Pontiac became the only companion marque to survive its parent, with Oakland ceasing production in 1932.

Pontiacs were also manufactured from knock-down kits at GM's short-lived Japanese factory at Osaka Assembly in Osaka, Japan from 1927-1941.[6]
Postcard showing a Pontiac dealer in Oklahoma, ca 1930-1945

Pontiac produced cars offering 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 186.7 cu in (3.1 L) (3.25x3.75 in, 82.5x95mm) L-head straight 6-cylinder engines in the Pontiac Chief of 1927; its stroke was the shortest of any American car in the industry at the time.[citation needed] The Chief sold 39,000 units within six months of its appearance at the 1926 New York Auto Salon, hitting 76,742 at twelve months. The next year, it became the top-selling six in the U.S., ranking seventh in overall sales.[7] By 1933, it had moved up to producing the least expensive cars available with straight eight engines. This was done by using many components from the 6-cylinder Chevrolet Master, such as the body, but installing a large chrome strip on the top and center of the front hood Pontiac called the "Silver Streak". Only eight cylinder engines were offered in 1933 and 1934, displacing 223.4 cubic inches for 77 HP. In the late 1930s, Pontiac used a Buick "torpedo" body for one of its models, just prior to its being used by Chevrolet, earning some media attention for the marque. An unusual feature of the "torpedo"-bodied exhibition car was that, with push of a button, the front half of the body would open showing the engine and the car's front seat interior.[8] 1937 was a year of major change for Pontiac, all models except the new station wagon now using the all steel B-body shared with Oldsmobile, LaSalle and small Buicks. New stronger X frame had Hotchkiss drive using a two part drive shaft. The eight-cylinder had a 122-inch (3,099 mm) wheelbase, while the six-cylinder had a 117-inch (2,972 mm) wheelbase.[9] Both engines had increased displacements, the six going to 222.7 cubic inches for 85 HP, the eight to 248.9 for 100 HP. In 1940 & 42, Pontiac was built on three different bodies. The "A" body with Chevrolet, the "B" body shared with Oldsmobile and Buick and the "C" body shared with the large Oldsmobile, Buick and the small Cadillac. The "C" body for 1940 was called the Torpedo. In 1941 all Pontiac's were called Torpedoes. On 2 February 1942, a Pontiac was the last civilian automobile manufactured in the United States during World War II, as all automobile factories converted to military production.[10]

For an extended period of time—prewar through the early 1950s—the Pontiac was a quiet, solid car, but not especially powerful. It came with a flathead straight eight. Straight 8s were slightly less expensive to produce than the increasingly popular V8s, but they were also heavier and longer. Additionally, the long crankshaft suffered from excessive flex, restricting straight 8s to a relatively low compression ratio with a modest redline. However, in this application, inexpensive (yet very quiet) flatheads were not a liability.[citation needed]
1946–1954
1948 Pontiac Silver Streak Convertible Coupe

From 1946 to 1948, all Pontiac models were essentially 1942 models with minor changes. The Hydra-matic automatic transmission was introduced in 1948 and helped Pontiac sales grow even though their cars, Torpedoes and Streamliners, were quickly becoming out of date.

The first all-new Pontiac models appeared in 1949. They incorporated styling cues such as lower body lines and rear fenders that were integrated in the rear-end styling of the car.

Along with new styling came a new model. Continuing the Native American theme of Pontiac, the Chieftain line was introduced to replace the Torpedo. These were built on the GM B-Body platform and featured different styling than the more conservative Streamliner. In 1950, the Catalina pillarless hardtop coupe was introduced as a "halo" model, much like the Chevrolet Bel Air of the same year.

In 1952, Pontiac discontinued the Streamliner and replaced it with additional models in the Chieftain line built on the GM A-body platform. This single model line continued until 1954 when the Star Chief was added. The Star Chief was created by adding an 11-inch (280 mm) extension to the A-body platform creating a 124-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase.

The 1953 models were the first to have one-piece windshields instead of the normal two-piece units. While the 1953 and 1954 models were heavily re-worked versions of the 1949-52 Chieftain models, they were engineered for the V8 engine that was supposed to be introduced on the 1953 models, however Buick division complained to corporate that the introduction might take sales away because Buick was introducing its new nailhead V-8 in 1953. The corporation held Pontiac back until 1955.
1955–1960
Pontiac Star Chief 1955
1956 Canadian Pontiac Pathfinder Sedan delivery. 1,383 built, not available in the U.S.

Completely new bodies and chassis were introduced for 1955. A new 173 hp (129 kW; 175 PS) overhead valve V8 engine was introduced. (see Engines section below). Sales increased. With the introduction of this V8, the six-cylinder engines were discontinued; a six-cylinder would not return to the full-size Pontiac line until the GM corporate downsizing of 1977. A four-cylinder engine was introduced in the Tempest model line in 1961, followed by an overhead-cam six-cylinder starting in 1966, as well as on the Firebird. It was the first popular-priced, mass-produced engine in America utilizing an overhead-camshaft configuration.[11]

In 1956, when 42-year-old Semon "Bunkie" Knudsen became general manager of Pontiac, alongside new heads of engineering, E. M. Estes and John DeLorean, Knudsen immediately began reworking the brand's image. One of the first steps involved the removal of the famous trademark "silver streaks" from the hood and deck lid of the 1957 models just weeks before the 1957s were introduced. Another step was introducing the first Bonneville—a limited-edition Star Chief convertible that showcased Pontiac's first fuel-injected engine. Approximately 630 Bonnevilles were built for 1957, each with a retail price of nearly $5,800. While new car buyers could buy a Cadillac for that price, the Bonneville raised new interest in what Pontiac now called "America's No. 1 Road Car."
1959 Bonneville from the rear, showing double rear fins

The following year the Bonneville became its own line, built on the 122-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase of the A-body platform. A 1958 Tri power Bonneville was the pace car for that year's Indianapolis 500. Also, 1958 was the last year Pontiac Motor Division would bear the "Indian" motif throughout the vehicle. The exception would be the Indian head high beam indicator light in the instrument cluster. All 1958 models now featured Ball joint front suspension replacing the previous king pin design.

With the 1959 model year, Pontiac came out with its "Arrowhead" emblem, with the star design in the middle. The "Arrowhead" design ran all the way up the hood from between the split grille, and on Star Chief models, had eight chrome stars from the emblem design bolted to both sides of the vehicle as chrome trim. Knudsen saw to it that the car received a completely reworked chassis, body, and interior styling. Quad headlamps, as well as a longer, lower body were some of the styling changes.

The Chieftain line was renamed Catalina; Star Chief was downgraded to replace the discontinued Super Chief series and for the first time did not have a two-door hardtop, only a two-door sedan along with a four-door hardtop and four-door sedan, in addition there was no Star Chief wagon. The Bonneville was now the top of the line, coming in three body styles of two-door hardtop, four-door vista and four-door wagon. The Star Chief's four-door "Vista" hardtop was also shared by the Bonneville. Catalina models included a two-door hardtop, two-door sedan, four-door sedan, four-door hardtop vista and two wagons, one a six-passenger and one a nine-passenger wagon. Bonneville and Star Chief were built on a 124-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase with the exception of the Bonneville wagon and all Catalina models and Bonneville wagon that rode on a 122-inch wheelbase. Catalina was also seven inches shorter than Bonneville and Star Chief and weighed one hundred to two hundred pounds less than its long-wheelbase counterparts. All 1959 Pontiac engines were equipped with a 389-cubic-inch engine with horsepower ratings from 215Hp economy engine to a conservative rated 345 hp Tri power carbureted engine. All automatics were four-speed Super-Hydra-Matics or, as Hydramatic Division who designed and built them called them, "Controlled coupling HydraMatic". A special note here is that Oldsmobile used this same transmission and called it Jetaway HydraMatic and Cadillac also used this transmission and Cadillac called it 315 or P 315 Hydramatic. A three-speed column-mounted stick shift was standard on all Pontiacs. This coincided with major body styling changes across all models that introduced increased glass area, twin V-shaped fins and lower hood profiles. Because of these changes, Motor Trend magazine picked the entire Pontiac line as 1959 Car of the Year. The '59s have a five-inch (127 mm) wider track, Front at 63 7/8" front track and 64.0" rear track because Knudsen noticed the new, wider bodies looked awkward on the carried-over 1958 frames. The new "Wide-Track" Pontiacs not only had improved styling, but also handled better—a bonus that tied into Pontiac's resurgence in the marketplace.

The 1960 models saw a complete re-skinning with the exception of the body's canopies which remained identical to the 59's, but removed the tail fins and the distinctive split grille (which Ford copied on the final Edsel models for 1960). The 1960 models standard engine all had a Horsepower gain of 3 hp due to a compression bump of .25 to one over the 59 engine. The front track was now widened to the rear track at 64". Ventura was introduced, a more luxurious hardtop coupe and the Vista 4-door hardtop now being built on the shorter 122-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase platform, with it falling between the Catalina and Star Chief models. The Ventura featured the luxury features of the Bonneville in the shorter, lighter Catalina body.
1961–1970

Most of Pontiac's models built during the 1960s and 1970s were either styled like, or were siblings to, other GM makes (except Cadillac). However, Pontiac retained its own front and rear end styling, interiors, and engines.
1964 Pontiac Bonneville Brougham
Full size Pontiacs from 1960 to 1968 featured these unique, finned, 8 bolt wheels, which aided in the cooling of the drum brakes

The 1961 models were similarly reworked. The split grille returned, as well as all-new bodies and a new design of a perimeter-frame chassis for all its full-size models (something which would be adopted for all of GM's intermediate-sized cars in 1964, and all its full-sized cars in 1965). These new chassis allowed for reduced weight and smaller body sizes. IThe similarly styled Chevrolet still used the radically different "X" frame in the early 1960s.

But a complete departure in 1961 was the new Tempest, one of the three BOP (Buick-Olds-Pontiac) "compacts" introduced that year, the others being the Buick Special and Skylark and Oldsmobile F-85 and Cutlass. Toward the end of the 1961 model year an upscale version of the Tempest called the "LeMans" was introduced, named after the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race in France.

All three were uni-body cars, dubbed the "Y-body" platform, combining the frame and body into a single construction, making them comparatively lighter and smaller. All three put into production new technology pushed by John DeLorean[citation needed] which GM had been working on for several years prior, but the Tempest was by far the most radical. A flexible steel shaft rotating at the speed of the engine delivered power from the front-mounted engine through a "torque tube" to a rear-mounted trans-axle. This innovation not only delivered close to a 50/50 front-rear weight distribution that drastically improved handling, it enabled four-wheel independent suspension which enhanced it even more. It also all but eliminated the large floor "hump" common to front-engined rear-drive cars.

Though the Tempest's transaxle was similar to the one in the Corvair, introduced the year before, it shared virtually no common parts. GM had planned to launch a Pontiac version of the Corvair (dubbed "Polaris"), but "Bunkie" Knudsen—whose niece had been seriously injured in a Corvair crash—successfully argued against the idea. The Polaris design apparently made it to full-scale clay before it was cancelled. Instead, DeLorean's "rope-shaft" design was green-lighted.

Contemporary rumors of the rope-shaft's demise due to reliability problems are unfounded; the rope-shaft's durability and performance had been proven in tests in full-size Pontiacs and Cadillacs in 1959, and only adapted to a smaller car in 1960. The Tempest won the Motor Trend "Car of the Year" award in 1961—for Pontiac, the second time in three years. DeLorean's vision has been further vindicated by the adoption of similar designs in a slew of modern high-performance cars, including the Porsche 928, 924, and 944, the Corvette C5, and the Aston Martin DB9.

Unless customers checked an option, the Tempest's power-plant was a 194.5 Ci inline-slant-four-cylinder motor, derived from the right bank of the venerable Pontiac 389 V8, enabling it to be run down the same production line as the 389, saving costs for both the car's customers and Pontiac. Pontiac engineers ran early tests of this motor by literally cutting off the left bank of pistons and adding counterweights to the crankshaft, and were surprised to find it easily maintained the heaviest Pontiacs at over 90 miles per hour (140 km/h). In production, the engine received a crankshaft designed for just four cylinders, but this didn't completely solve its balance issues. The engine gained the nickname "Hay Baler" because of it tendency to kick violently, like the farm machine, when its timing was off.

The aforementioned Buick 215 V8, was ordered by less than two percent of its customers in the two years it was available, 1961 and 1962. Today, the 215 cars are among the most sought-after of all Tempests. In 1963, Pontiac replaced the 215 with a "new" 326 which was really a 336 with a bore of 3.78 and stroke of 3.75 ( same stroke as the 389 ), an iron block mill that had the same external dimensions and shared parts with the 389, but an altered, reduced bore. The car's body and suspension was also changed to be lower, longer and wider. The response was that more than half of the 1963 Tempests and LeMans (separate lines for that one year only) were ordered with the V8, a trend that did not go unnoticed by management. The next year, the 326 would become a true 326 with a new bore size of 3.72. The Tempest's popularity helped move Pontiac into third place among American car brands in 1962, a position Pontiac would hold through 1970. The Buick 215 V8 would remain in production for more than thirty five years, being used by Britain's Rover Group after it had bought the rights to it. GM attempted to buy the rights back, however, Rover wished, instead, to sell the engines directly.

In November 1961, Knudsen had moved to Chevrolet. Pete Estes now became general manager of Pontiac and Delorean was promoted to Pontiac Chief engineer. Both continued Knudsen's work of making Pontiac a performance-car brand. Pontiac capitalized on the emerging trend toward sportier bucket-seat coupes in 1962 by introducing the Grand Prix, taking the place of the Ventura which now became a trim option on the Catalina. Although GM officially ended factory support for all racing activities across all of its brands in January 1963, Pontiac continued to cater to performance car enthusiasts by making larger engines with more power available across all model lines. For 1963, the Grand Prix received the same styling changes as other full-sized Pontiacs such as vertical headlights and crisper body lines, but also received its own squared-off roof-line with a concave rear window, along with less chrome. This concave rear window would be duplicated on all Tempest/LeMans four-door intermediates in 1964-1965.

For 1964, the Tempest and LeMans' trans-axle design was dropped and the cars were redesigned under GM's new A body platform; frame cars with a conventional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. The most important of these is the GTO, short for "Gran Turismo Omologato," the Italian for "Grand Touring, Homologated" used by Ferrari as a badge to announce a car's official qualification for racing. In spite of a GM unwritten edict against engines larger than 330 Ci in intermediate cars, DeLorean (with support from Jim Wangers from Pontiac's ad agency), came up with the idea to offer the GTO as an option package that included a 389 Ci engine rated at 325 or 348 horsepower (260 kW).

The entire Pontiac lineup was honored as Motor Trend's Car of the Year for 1965, the third time for Pontiac to receive such honors. The February, 1965 issue of Motor Trend was almost entirely devoted to Pontiac's Car of the Year award and included feature stories on the division's marketing, styling, engineering and performance efforts along with road tests of several models.
1969 Pontiac GTO convertible

Due to the popularity of the GTO option, it was split from being an option on the Tempest LeMans series to become the separate GTO series. On the technology front, 1966 saw the introduction of a completely new overhead camshaft 6-cylinder engine in the Tempest, and in an industry first, plastic grilles were used on several models.

The 1967 model year saw the introduction for the Pontiac Firebird pony car, a variant of the Chevrolet Camaro that was the brand's answer to the hot-selling Ford Mustang. Intermediate sized cars (Tempest, LeMans, GTO) were mildly face-lifted but all full size cars and GTO lost their Tri-Power engine option though it did get a larger 400 cubic-inch V8 that replaced the previous 389. Full-sized cars got a major facelift with rounder wasp-waisted body lines, a name change for the mid-line series from Star Chief to Executive and a one-year-only Grand Prix convertible. 1968 introduced the Endura 'rubber' front bumper on the GTO, the precursor to modern cars' integrated bumpers, and the first of a series "Ram Air" engines, which featured the induction of cold air to the carburetor(s) for more power, and took away some of the sting from deleting the famous Tri-Power multiple carburetion option from the engine line up. This Tri carburetor deletion came from the 14th floor of GM banning multiple carburetion and headed by GM president Ed Cole. The Ram Air V garnered much auto press publicity, but only a relative few were made available for sale. Full-sized cars and intermediates reverted from vertical to horizontal headlights while the sporty/performance 2+2 was dropped from the lineup.

For 1969, Pontiac moved the Grand Prix from the full-sized lineup into a G-body model of its own based on the A-body intermediate four-door modified from 116 inches to 118 inches wheelbase chassis, but with distinctive styling and long hood/short deck proportions to create yet another niche product – the intermediate-sized personal-luxury car that offered the luxury and styling of the higher priced personal cars such as the Buick Riviera and Ford Thunderbird and the old Grand Prix and Olds Starfire but for a much lower price tag. Pete Estes, who like Knudsen had moved to be general manager of Chevrolet in 1966 and Delorean, general manager of the Pontiac division, needed a car to take the place of the sagging sales of the full size Grand Prix, but the development cost of the car was too much of burden for Pontiac division alone, so Delorean went to his old boss at Chevrolet to gather support for the development cost of the new "G" body Grand Prix. Estes agreed to share in the cost and allow Pontiac to have a one-year exclusivity on this new car, the next year Chevy would follow with its version which was called Chevrolet Monte Carlo. The new Grand Prix was such a sales success in 1969 as dealers moved 112,000 units - more than four times the number of Grand Prixs sold in 1968. Full-sized Pontiacs were also substantially restyled but retained the same basic under-body structure and chassis that debuted with the 1965 model - in fact the roof-lines for the four-door pillared sedans and Safari wagons were the same as the 1965 models, while the two-door semi-fastback design gave way to a squared-off notch-back style and four-door hardtop sedans were also more squared off than 1967-68 models. The GTOs and Firebirds received the Ram Air options, the GTO saw the addition of the "Judge" performance/appearance package, and the Firebird also got the "Trans Am" package. Although originally conceived as a 303 cubic inch model to compete directly in the Trans Am racing series, in a cost-saving move the Pontiac Trans Am debuted with the standard 400-cubic-inch performance engines. This year also saw De Lorean leaving the post of general manager to accept a similar position at GM's Chevrolet division. His replacement was F. James McDonald.

Pontiacs built in the late 1960s conformed to new U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. These included energy-absorbing interior parts such as steering columns, steering wheels, knobs and handles, dual-circuit hydraulic brake systems, shoulder belts, side marker lights, and headrests.

The 1969 Firebirds received a heavy facelift but otherwise continued much the same as the original 1967 model. It was the final year for the overhead cam six-cylinder engine in Firebirds and intermediates, and the Firebird convertible (until 1991). Production of the 1969 Firebirds was extended into the first three months of the 1970 model year (all other 1970 Pontiacs debuted Sept. 18, 1969) due to a decision to delay the introduction of an all-new 1970 Firebird (and Chevrolet Camaro) until Feb. 26, 1970.[by whom?]

In addition in the late-1960s, GM directed their GM and Pontiac divisions to develop concept mini-cars called commuter car for urban drivers. GM developed a gasoline-electric drive hybrid the XP-833 and the Pontiac X-4 a rear-wheel drive mid-engine car that was powered by a radical X-shaped aircraft type air-cooled two-stroke radial engine where the standard crankshaft was replaced by a unit called a Scotch yoke. While the GM car was fully tested the Pontiac concept was not. Neither was placed in production.[12]
1970–1982

Increasing insurance and fuel costs for owners coupled with looming Federal emissions and safety regulations would eventually put an end to the unrestricted, powerful engines of the 1960s. Safety, luxury and economy would become the new watch-words of this decade. Engine performance began declining in 1971 when GM issued a corporate edict mandating that all engines be capable of using lower-octane unleaded gasoline, which led to dramatic drops in compression ratios, along with performance and fuel economy. This, coupled with trying to build cars as plush as GM's more luxurious Buicks and Oldsmobiles, contributed to the start of a slow decline of Pontiac in 1971.[13]

In mid-1971 Pontiac introduced the compact, budget-priced Ventura II (based on the third generation Chevrolet Nova). This same year, Pontiac completely restyled its full-sized cars, moved the Bonneville, and replaced it with a higher luxury model named the Grand Ville, while Safari wagons got a new clamshell tailgate that lowered into the body while the rear window raised into the roof. 1971–1976 model full-size station wagons featured a 'Clamshell' design where the rear power-operated glass slid up into the roof as the tailgate (manually or with power assist), dropped below the load floor. The power tailgate, the first in station wagon history, ultimately supplanted the manual tailgate, which required marked effort to lift from storage.

The 1972 models saw the first wave of emissions reduction and safety equipment and updates. GTO was a now sub-series of the LeMans series. The Tempest, was dropped, after being renamed 'T-37' and 'GT-37' for 1971. The base 1972 mid-sized Pontiac was now called LeMans. James MacDonald left the post of general manager to be replaced by Martin J. Caserio in late 1972. Caserio was the first manager in over a decade to be more focused on marketing and sales than on performance.
1973 Pontiac Grand Am, the first model year of the Grand Am
1975 Pontiac Astre

For 1973, Pontiac restyled its personal-luxury Grand Prix, mid-sized LeMans and compact Ventura models and introduced the all-new Grand Am as part of the LeMans line. All other models including the big cars and Firebirds received only minor updates. Again, power dropped across all engines as more emissions requirements came into effect. The 1973 Firebird Trans Am's factory applied hood decal, a John Schinella restylized interpretation of the Native American fire bird, took up most of the available space on the hood. Also in 1973, the new Super Duty 455 engine ("Super Duty" harkening back to Pontiac's Racing Engines) was introduced. Although it was originally supposed to be available in GTOs and Firebirds, only a few SD 455 engines made it into Firebird Trans Ams that year. One so equipped was tested by 'Car and Driver' magazine, who proclaimed it the last of the fast cars. But the pendulum had swung, and the SD 455 only hung on one more year in the Trans Am.

All Federal emissions and safety regulations were required to be in full effect for 1974 causing the demise of two of the three iterations of the big 455 cubic inch engines after this year. The last version of the 455 would hang on for two more years before being discontinued.
The 1975 Grand Ville was the last full-size convertible built by Pontiac

For 1975, Pontiac introduced the new sub-compact Astre, a version of the Chevrolet Vega. This was the brand's entry into the fuel economy segment of the market. Astre had been sold exclusively in Canada from 1973. It was offered through the 1977 model year. 1975 would also see the end of Pontiac convertibles for the next decade.

The 1976 models were the last of the traditional American large cars powered by mostly big block V8 engines. After this year, all GM models would go through "downsizing" and shrink in length, width, weight and available engine size. The 1976 Sunbird, based on the Chevrolet Vega and Monza's equivalent, joined the line. It was first offered as a Notchback, with a Hatchback body style added in 1977. The Vega Wagon body style was added in 1978, Sunbird Safari Wagon, replacing the Astre Safari Wagon. The Sunbird was offered in its rear-wheel-drive configuration through the 1980 model year. (Sunbird Safari wagon through 1979.)

At mid-year 1977, Pontiac introduced the Phoenix, an upscale version of the Ventura which replaced the Ventura entirely after the end of the 1977 model year. Pontiac also introduced its 151 cubic inch "Iron Duke" 4-cylinder overhead valve engine. It was first used in the 1977 Astre, replacing Astre's aluminum-block 140 cubic inch Vega engine. The 'Iron Duke' engine would later go into many GM and non-GM automobiles into the early 1990s. The 151 cubic inch L4 and the 301 cubic inch V8 were the last two engines designed solely by Pontiac. Subsequent engine design would be accomplished by one central office with all designs being shared by each brand.

For model year 1977, the full sized Pontiacs received the same "downsizing" as GM's other "B" body cars. The new Bonnevilles and Catalinas continued to be best-sellers, although their styling similarity to the Chevrolet Caprice was seen by some buyers as a "cheapening" of Pontiac's image. In 1981, the full-size Bonneville was discontinued, the name reassigned to the "A" body intermediate platform. That left the Catalina as the only big Pontiac, further reducing sales as buyers went for more plushness.

The remainder of the 1970s and the early 1980s saw the continued rise of luxury, safety and economy as the key selling points in Pontiac products. Wire-spoked wheel covers returned for the first time since the 1930s. More station wagons than ever were being offered. Padded vinyl roofs were options on almost every model. Rear-wheel drive began its slow demise with the introduction of the first front-wheel drive Pontiac, the 1980 Phoenix (a version of the Chevrolet Citation). The Firebird continued to fly high on the success of the 'Smokey and the Bandit' film, still offering Formula and Trans Am packages, plus a Pontiac first- a turbocharged V8, for the 1980 and 1981 model years. In addition to this, The Rockford Files, which lasted for 6 years used an Esprit Firebird. James Garner was given a new model each year, which was resprayed and painted. But he disapproved of the front facelift. The turn which he performed throughout the show were all his own stunts and came to be known as the Rockford turn or J turn.
1982–1988
1985 Firebird Trans Am

Introduced in 1982, the wedge shaped Firebird was the first major redesign of the venerable pony car since 1970. Partly due to the hugely successful NBC television series Knight Rider, it was an instant success and provided Pontiac with a foundation on which to build successively more performance oriented models over the next decade. The Trans Am also set a production aerodynamic mark of .32 cd. The next step in Pontiac's resurgence came in the form of its first convertible in nine years. GM adapted the J-body cars and the all-new for 1982 J2000 (later renamed Sunbird) had a convertible as part of its line.
1985 Fiero Sport Coupe

Next, the 1984 Fiero came. This was a major departure from anything Pontiac had produced in the past. A two-seat, mid-engined coupe, the Fiero was targeted straight at the same market that Semon Knudsen had been aiming for in the late 1950s: the young, affluent buyer who wanted sporting performance at a reasonable price. The Fiero was also an instant success and was partially responsible for Pontiac seeing its first increase in sales in four years.Pontiac also began to focus on technology. In 1984, a Special Touring Edition (STE) was added to the 6000 line as a competitor to European road cars such as the Mercedes 190. The STE sported digital instruments and other electronics as well as a more powerful V-6 and retuned suspension. Later iterations would see some of the first introductions on Pontiacs of anti-lock brakes, steering wheel mounted radio controls and other advanced features. Full-size buyers, disappointed by the lack of an available big Bonneville, complained, resulting in Pontiac's importing the Canadian-market Pontiac Parisienne, which featured the Bonneville's deluxe trim. This car, although a Pontiac in name, was no more than a slightly re-trimmed Caprice. Despite this fact, the Parisienne sold in profitable numbers and this car continued in production until 1986 for the sedan, and 1989 for the Safari station wagon.With the exception of the Parisienne Safari, the Firebird and Fiero, beginning in 1988 all Pontiacs, with the exception of the Firebird, switched to front-wheel drive platforms. For the first time since 1970, Pontiac was the number three domestic car maker in America. Pontiac's drive to bring in more youthful buyers was working as the median age of Pontiac owners dropped from 46 in 1981 to 38 in 1988.
1989–1997
A mid-90s Grand Prix

During this time, becoming standard on Pontiacs were: anti-lock brakes, GM's Quad-4 engine, airbags, and composite materials. In 1989,there was the end of Safari wagon production, thus it was the last V8 powered full sized rear wheel drive Pontiac until the 2009 G8. The 1990 model year saw the launch of Pontiac's first minivan and light truck, the Trans Sport. In addition, the Grand Prix line added its first ever 4 door model, offered in LE and STE trims. At the end of the 1991 model year, the 6000 was discontinued in favor of the newly expanded Grand Prix line up and the new Trans Sport minivan, which replaced the 6000 station wagon. In 1992, a brand-new Bonneville was introduced. This full-size model featured aerodynamic styling, large expanses of curved glass, front-wheel drive, and the 3800 Series I V6 as standard equipment. A new sub model,the SSEi, was introduced in 1992 carrying all standard equipment from the SSE model, plus the 205 hp supercharged 3800 V6. For 1993 the Bonneville added a new option package (H4U) called the Sport Luxury Edition (SLE), which was available on the SE model. This package included leather bucket seats, specific grille, side trim, exhaust, dash trim, lace alloy wheels, as well as a spoiler, sport handling and suspension systems and anti lock brakes. An all new Firebird was introduced in 1993. It was powered by either a 3.4 L V6 with 160 hp (120 kW), or in Trans Am guise a 275 hp (205 kW) LT-1, a 5.7 L (350c.i.) V8, and could be backed by a T-56 six-speed manual.The Sunbird was replaced with the (still J-body) Sunfire in 1995. While a V6 engine was no longer available in the J-car, sedan, coupe, and convertible body styles did survive. For 1996 the Bonneville received updated front and rear fascias along with several other enhancements. The 3800 Series II V6 had become standard in 1995, featuring 200 hp. The updated supercharged 3800 Series II now featured 240 hp.




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